Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, commonly referred to as CPR, is a potentially lifesaving technique. It involves artificial respiration and cardiac massage. Formal training is required in order to perform it correctly, always call 999 (or your respective emergency line) immediately when there is a serious incident.
Hands only cardiopulmonary resuscitation
This method is for untrained individuals and does not include the aspect of artificial respiration. Place the heel/palm of your hand directly on the individual’s breastbone, located directly at the centre of their chest. Apply pressure, pushing down approximately 1 ½ inches at the rate of ~2 compressions per second.
Conventional adult cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Note: These are merely guidelines and there is no substitute for formal CPR training from a qualified medical member. Remember to always call an emergency line in the event of a serious injury.
- Open the affected individual’s airway by tilting their head and lifting their chin. Determine whether they are breathing.
- If they are not breathing, proceed to pinch their nose and make a seal over the person’s mouth with your own (using a CPR mask if available). Blow into the individual’s mouth, their chest will rise if you are performing this correctly. Allow their chest to fall and repeat breathing aspect. If their chest does not rise upon breathing into their mouth, reposition their head and try again.
- Chest compressions – do this even if the previous step (2) does not work, using the steps from hands only CPR. Perform 30 compressions and then repeat the rescue breaths stage.
- Repeat the cycle for approximately 2 minutes and check for breathing again. If the victim is not breathing, continue the CPR process until emergency services arrive.
It is normal to feel snaps/pops when performing CPR on someone as the heavy pressure on their ribs causes them to break. The rib fractures can be treated, cardiac arrest is not treatable without CPR.